Lesser Adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus)

Lesser Adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus)

Lesser Adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus)

Local name Burung Botak
Size (cm) 114
Habitat Mangroves
Distribution Peninsular Malaysia: Resident (Totally Protected)
Sarawak: Resident (Totally Protected)
Sabah: Resident (Protected)
Status Vulnerable 
Details Listed as globally endangered in Allen J.
Reference Allen 42 (plate 6), Robson 561 (plate 54)

The Lesser Adjutant, Leptoptilos javanicus, is a large wading bird in the stork family Ciconiidae. It is a widespread species which is resident breeder in southern Asia from India east to southern China and Java.

This is a huge bird, typically 110–120 cm (43–48 in) tall with a 210 cm (83 in) wingspan and a body weight of 4.09–5.71 kg (9.0–12.6 lb).It is, however, the smallest member of the Leptoptilos genus. Its upper body and wings are black, but the belly and undertail are white. The head and neck are bare like those of a vulture. The pale bill is long and thick. Juveniles are a duller version of the adult.

Most storks fly with neck outstretched, but the three Leptoptilos species retract their neck in flight like a heron.

The Lesser Adjutant breeds in wetlands in tropical lowland. It builds a stick nest in trees. It often forms small colonies.

The Lesser Adjutant, like most of its relatives, feeds mainly on frogs, fish and large insects, but also small birds, reptiles and rodents during the breeding season. However, unlike the larger Greater Adjutant and Marabou Storks, it rarely eats carrion and human garbage outside of the breeding season, still preferring small, live prey all year around.





American Purple Gallinule, Porphyrio martinica

American Purple Gallinule, Porphyrio martinica

The rails, or Rallidae, are a large cosmopolitan family of small to medium-sized birds. The family exhibits considerable diversity and the family also includes the crakes, coots, and gallinules. Many species are associated with wetlands, although the family is found in every terrestrial habitat except dry deserts, polar regions and alpine areas above the snow line.

Members of the Rallidae are found on every continent except Antarctica. There are numerous island species. The most common habitats are marshland or dense forest. Rails are especially fond of dense vegetation.


The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. Reed beds are a particularly favoured habitat. They are omnivorous, and those that migrate do so at night: most nest in dense vegetation. In general, they are shy and secretive birds, and are difficult to observe.

Most species walk and run vigorously on strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and although they are generally weak fliers, they are, nevertheless, capable of covering long distances.

Island species often become flightless, and many of them are now extinct following the introduction of terrestrial predators such as cats, rats and pigs.

Many reedbed species are secretive (apart from loud calls), crepuscular, and have laterally flattened bodies. In the Old World, long-billed species tend to be called rails and short-billed species crakes. North American species are normally called rails irrespective of bill length. The smallest of these is the Swinhoe’s Rail, at 13 cm (5 inches) and 25 grams.

The larger species are also sometimes given other names. The black coots are more adapted to open water than their relatives, and some other large species are called gallinules and swamphens. The largest of this group is the Takahē, at 65 cm (26 inches) and 2.7 kg (6 lbs).

The rails have suffered disproportionally from human changes to the environment and it is estimated that several hundred species of island rail have become extinct because of this. Several island species of rail remain endangered and conservation organisations and governments continue to work to prevent their extinction.


The rails are a fairly homogeneous family of small to medium sized ground living birds. They vary in length from 12 cm to 63 cm and in weight from 20 g to 3000 g. Some species have long necks and in many cases they are laterally compressed. The bill is the most variable feature within the family: in some species it is longer than the head (like the Clapper Rail of the Americas), in others it may be short and wide (as in the coots), or massive (as in the purple gallinules). A few coots and gallinules have a “frontal shield”, which is a fleshy rearward extension of the upper bill. The most complex frontal shield is found in the Horned Coot.

South Island Takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri) from behind, showing the short, soft and fluffy remiges typical of flightless rails

South Island Takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri) from behind, showing the short, soft and fluffy remiges typical of flightless rails

Rails exhibit very little sexual dimorphism in either plumage or size.

Flight and flightlessness

The wings of all rails are short and rounded. The flight of those Rallidae able to fly, while not very powerful, can be sustained for long periods of time and many species undertake annual migrations. The weakness of their flight, however, means that they are easily blown off course and thus are common vagrants, a characteristic that has led them to colonize many isolated oceanic islands. Furthermore, these birds often prefer to run rather than fly, especially when in dense habitat. Some are also flightless at some time during their moult period.

Many island rails are flightless because small island habitats without threatening predators often eliminate the need to fly or move long distances. Flight makes intense demands, with the keel and flight muscles taking up to a quarter of a bird’s weight in Rallidae species. Reducing the flight muscles, along with the corresponding lowering in metabolic demands, reduces the flightless rail’s energy expenditures. For this reason flightlessness makes it easier to survive and colonize an island where resources may be limited.Flightlessness can evolve extremely rapidly in island rails; it took as little as 125,000 years for the Laysan Rail to lose the power of flight and evolve the reduced, stubby wings only useful to keep balance when running quickly.

Behavior and ecology

In general, members of Rallidae are omnivorous generalists. Many species will eat invertebrates, as well as fruit or seedlings. A few species are primarily vegetarian.

The calls of Rallidae species vary and are often quite loud. Some are whistle-like or squeak-like, while others are “unbirdlike”.Loud calls are useful in dense vegetation or at night where it is difficult to see another member of the species. Some calls are territorial.


The breeding behavior of many Rallidae species are poorly understood or unknown. Most are thought to be monogamous, although polygyny and polyandry have been reported.

Most often, there are five to ten eggs. Clutches as small as one or as large as fifteen eggs are known.[9]

Egg clutches may not always hatch at the same time. Chicks become mobile after a few days. They will often remain dependent on their parents until fledging, which happens at around one month of age.

Rallidae and humans

Some of the larger, more abundant rails are hunted and their eggs collected for food. The Wake Island Rail was hunted to extinction by the starving Japanese garrison after the island was cut off from supply during World War II.

At least two species – the Common Moorhen and the American Purple Gallinule – have been considered pests.

Threats and conservation

The Guam Rail is an example of an island species that has been badly affected by introduced species.

The Guam Rail is an example of an island species that has been badly affected by introduced species.

Due to their tendencies towards flightlessness, many island species have been unable to cope with introduced species. The most dramatic human caused extinctions occurred in the Pacific Ocean as people colonised the islands of Melanesia, Polynesia and Micronesia, during which an estimated 750-1800 species of bird went extinct, half of which were rails. Some species which came close to extinction, such as the Lord Howe Woodhen, and the Takahē, have made modest recoveries due to the efforts of conservation organisations. The Guam Rail came perilously close to extinction when Brown tree snakes were introduced to Guam but some of the last remaining individuals were taken into captivity and are breeding well, although attempts to reintroduce it have met with mixed results.

Systematics and evolution

The family Rallidae has traditionally been grouped with two families of larger birds, the cranes and bustards, as well as several smaller families of usually “primitive” mid-sized amphibious birds, to make up the order Gruiformes. The alternative Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, which has been widely accepted in America, raises the family to ordinal level as the Ralliformes. Given the uncertainty about gruiform monophyly, this may or may not be correct; it certainly seems more justified than most of the Sibley-Ahlquist proposals. On the other hand, such a group would probably also include the Heliornithidae (finfoots and Sungrebe), an exclusively tropical group that is somewhat convergent with grebes, and usually united with the rails in the Ralli.

Extant (living) genera

Water Rail, Rallus aquaticus

Water Rail, Rallus aquaticus

Red-legged Crake, Rallina fasciata

Red-legged Crake, Rallina fasciata

  • Himantornis – Nkulengu Rail
  • Sarothrura – flufftails (9 species)
  • Canirallus (3 species)
  • Coturnicops (3 species)
  • Micropygia – Ocellated Crake
  • Rallina – forest rails (8 species)
  • Anurolimnas (3 species)
  • Atlantisia – Inaccessible Island Rail
  • Laterallus (10 species)
  • Nesoclopeus (1 living species, 1 recently extinct)
  • Gallirallus – Austropacific rails (11-12 living species, 3-5 recently extinct)
  • Rallus – typical rails (some 9 living species)
  • Lewinia (3 species; sometimes included in Rallus)
  • Dryolimnas (1 living species, 1 recently extinct)
  • Crecopsis – African Crake (sometimes included in Crex)
  • Crex – Corn Crake
  • Rougetius – Rouget’s Rail
  • Aramidopsis – Snoring Rail
  • Aramides – wood rails (8-9 living species, possibly 1 recently extinct)
  • Amaurolimnas – Uniform Crake
  • Gymnocrex (3 species)
  • Amaurornis – bush-hens (9 species)
  • Porzana – typical crakes (13 living species, 4-5 recently extinct)
  • Aenigmatolimnas – Striped Crake
  • Cyanolimnas – Zapata Rail
  • Neocrex (2 species)
  • Pardirallus (3 species)
  • Eulabeornis – Chestnut Rail
  • Habroptila – Invisible Rail
  • Megacrex – New Guinea Flightless Rail
  • Gallicrex – Watercock
  • Porphyrio – swamphens and purple gallinules (6 living species, 2-5 recently extinct; includes Notornis and Porphyrula)
  • Gallinula – typical gallinules (7-9 living species, 1-3 recently extinct; includes Edithornis and Pareudiastes)
  • Fulica – coots (c.10 living species, 1 recently extinct)
Immature Spotted Crake (Porzana porzana)

Immature Spotted Crake (Porzana porzana)

Additionally, there are many prehistoric rails of extant genera, known only from fossil or subfossil remains, such as the Ibiza Rail (Rallus eivissensis). These have not been listed here; see the genus accounts and the articles on fossil and Late Quaternary prehistoric birds for these species.

Recently extinct genera

Dusky Moorhen, Gallinula tenebrosa

Dusky Moorhen, Gallinula tenebrosa

  • Genus Nesotrochis– cave-rails (3 species; extinctprehistoric or later)
    • Antillean Cave Rail, Nesotrochis debooyi (Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, West Indies) – may have survived until historic times
    • Haitian Cave-Rail, Nesotrochis steganinos (Haiti, West Indies) – prehistoric
    • Cuban Cave-Rail, Nesotrochis picapicensis (Cuba, West Indies) – prehistoric
  • Genus Diaphorapteryx – Hawkins’ Rail (extinct 19th century)
  • Genus Aphanapteryx (2 species; extinct mid-18th century)
  • Genus Cabalus – Chatham Rail (sometimes included in Gallirallus; extinct c. 1900)
  • Genus Mundia – Ascension Crake – formerly included in Atlantisia; (late 17th century)
  • Genus Aphanocrex – St Helena Swamphen (formerly included in Atlantisia; extinct 16th century)

The undescribed Fernando de Noronha Rail, genus and species undetermined, probably survived to historic times.

Late Quaternary prehistoric extinctions

  • Genus Capellirallus – Snipe-rail
  • Genus Vitirallus – Viti Levu Rail. The holotype of Vitirallus watlingiis in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.
  • Genus Hovacrex – Hova-gallinule

Fossil record

Fossil species of long-extinct prehistoric rails are richly documented from the well-researched formations of Europe and North America, as well from the less comprehensively studied strata elsewhere:

  • Genus Eocrex (Wasatch Early Eocene of Steamboat Springs, USA)
  • Genus Palaeorallus (Wasatch Early Eocene of Wyoming, USA)
  • Genus Parvirallus (Early – Middle Eocene of England)
  • Genus Aletornis (Bridger Middle Eocene of Uinta County, USA) – includes Protogrus
  • Genus Fulicaletornis (Bridger Middle Eocene of Henry’s Fork, USA)
  • Genus Latipons (Middle Eocene of Lee-on-Solent, England)
  • Genus Ibidopsis (Hordwell Late Eocene of Hordwell, UK)
  • Genus Quercyrallus (Late Eocene -? Late Oligocene of France)
  • Genus Belgirallus (Early Oligocene of WC Europe)
  • Genus Rallicrex (Corbula Middle/Late Oligocene of Kolzsvár, Romania)
  • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene of Billy-Créchy, France)
  • Genus Palaeoaramides (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene – Late Miocene of France)
  • Genus Rhenanorallus (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Mainz Basin, Germany)
  • Genus Paraortygometra (Late Oligocene/?Early Miocene -? Middle Miocene of France) – includes Microrallus
  • Genus Pararallus (Late Oligocene? – Late Miocene of C Europe) – possibly belongs in Palaeoaramides
  • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Bathans Early/Middle Miocene of Otago, New Zealand)
  • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Bathans Early/Middle Miocene of Otago, New Zealand)
  • Genus Miofulica (Anversian Black Sand Middle Miocene of Antwerp, Belgium)
  • Genus Miorallus (Middle Miocene of Sansan, France -? Late Miocene of Rudabánya, Hungary)
  • Genus Youngornis (Shanwang Middle Miocene of Linqu, China)
  • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Sajóvölgyi Middle Miocene of Mátraszõlõs, Hungary)
  • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene of Grive-Saint-Alban, France)
  • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene of Lemoyne Quarry, USA)
  • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP V55013-55014; UMMP V55012/V45750/V45746 (Rexroad Late Pliocene of Saw Rock Canyon, USA)
  • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP V29080 (Rexroad Late Pliocene of Fox Canyon, USA)
  • Genus Creccoides (Blanco Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene of Crosby County, USA)
  • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Bermuda, West Atlantic)
  • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (formerly Fulica podagrica) (Late Pleistocene of Barbados)
  • Genus Pleistorallus (mid-Pleistocene New Zealand).[21] The holotype of Pleistorallus flemingiis in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.[22]

Doubtfully placed here

These taxa may or may not have been rails:

  • Genus Ludiortyx (Late Eocene) – includes “Tringa” hoffmanni, “Palaeortyx” blanchardi, “P.” hoffmanni
  • Genus Telecrex (Irdin Manha Late Eocene of Chimney Butte, China)
  • Genus Amitabha (Bridger middle Eocene of Forbidden City, USA) – phasianid?
  • Genus Palaeocrex (Early Oligocene of Trigonias Quarry, USA)
  • Genus Rupelrallus (Early Oligocene of Germany)
  • Neornithes incerta sedis (Late Oligocene of Riversleigh, Australia)
  • Genus Euryonotus (Pleistocene of Argentina)

The presumed scolopacid wader Limosa gypsorum (Montmartre Late Eocene of France) is sometimes considered a rail and then placed in the genus Montirallus.




By norazmibinahmad Posted in Famili


Satyr Tragopan

Satyr Tragopan

The Phasianidae is a family of birds which consists of the pheasants and partridges, including the junglefowl (including chicken), Old World Quail, francolins, monals and peafowl. The family is a large one, and is occasionally broken up into two subfamilies, the Phasianinae, and the Perdicinae. Sometimes additional families and birds are treated as being in this family as well; the American Ornithologists’ Union includes Tetraonidae (the grouse), Numididae (guineafowls), and Meleagrididae (turkeys) in Phasianidae as subfamilies.

The earliest fossil records of phasianids date to the late Oligocene epoch, about 30 million years ago.


The pheasants and their allies are an Old World family, with a distribution that includes most of Europe and Asia (except the far north), all of Africa except the driest deserts and down into much of eastern Australia and (formerly) New Zealand. The greatest diversity of species is in Southeast Asia and Africa. Amongst the pheasants, with the exception of the Congo Peafowl, the distribution is entirely restricted to Asia; the Perdicinae have a much more widespread distribution. Within their range they occupy almost every available habitat except for boreal forest and tundra.

The family is generally sedentary and resident, although some quails undertake long migrations. Several species in the family have been widely introduced around the world, particularly pheasants which have been introduced to Europe, Australia and the Americas. Captive populations of peacocks and chickens have also escaped and become feral.


Phasianids are terrestrial, ground living species. They are variable in size and ranging from 43 g, in the case of the King Quail, to 6 kg in the case of the Indian Peafowl. There is generally sexual dimorphism in size, with males tending to be larger than females. They are generally plump, with broad relatively short wings and strong legs. Many have a spur on their legs, a feature shared with guineafowl and turkeys but no other galliform birds. The bill is short and generally strong, particularly in species that dig in order to obtain food. Males of the larger species often have brightly coloured plumage as well as facial ornamentations such as wattles or crests.


The pheasants and partridges have a varied diet, with foods taken ranging from purely vegetarian diets of seeds, leaves, fruits, tubers and roots, to small animals including insects, insect grubs and even small reptiles. Most species either specialise in feeding on plant matter or are predatory, although the chicks of most species are insectivorous.

In addition to the variation in diet there is a considerable amount of variation in breeding strategies amongst the Phasianidae. Compared to birds in general there is a large number of species that do not engage in monogamy (the typical breeding system of most birds). The francolins of Africa and some partridges are reportedly monogamous, but polygamy has been reported in the pheasants and junglefowl, some quail, and the breeding displays of peacocks have been compared to those of a lek. Nesting usually occurs on the ground; only the tragopans nest higher up in stumps of bushes. Nests can vary from monds of vegetation to slight scrapes in the ground. As many as 18 eggs can be laid in the nest, although 7-12 is the more usual number, with smaller numbers in tropical species. Incubation is almost always performed by the female only, and last from 14–30 days depending on the species.

Relationship with humans

Several species of pheasant and partridge are extremely important to humans. The Red Junglefowl of Southeast Asia is the wild ancestor of the domesticated chicken, the most important bird in agriculture. Ring-necked Pheasants, several partridge and quail species and some francolins have been widely introduced and managed as game birds for hunting. Several species are threatened by human activities.

Species List

  • Genus Ithaginis
    • Blood Pheasant, (Ithaginis cruentus)
  • Genus Tragopan
    • Western Tragopan, (Tragopan melanocephalus)
    • Satyr Tragopan, (Tragopan satyra)
    • Blyth’s Tragopan, (Tragopan blythii)
    • Temminck’s Tragopan, (Tragopan temminckii)
    • Cabot’s Tragopan, (Tragopan caboti)
  • Genus Pucrasia
    • Koklass Pheasant, (Pucrasia macrolopha)
  • Genus Lophura, Gallopheasants
    • Kalij Pheasant, (L. leucomelanos)
      • White-crested Kalij Pheasant, (L. l. hamiltoni)
      • Nepal Kalij Pheasant, (L. l. leucomelanos)
      • Black-backed Kalij Pheasant, (L. l. melanota)
      • Black Kalij Pheasant, (L. l. moffitti)
      • Black-breasted Kalij Pheasant, (L. l. lathami)
      • William’s Kalij Pheasant, (L. l. williamsi)
      • Oates’ Kalij Pheasant, (L. l. oatesi)
      • Crawfurd’s Kalij Pheasant, (L. l. crawfurdi)
      • Lineated Kalij Pheasant, (L. l. lineata)
    • Silver Pheasant, (L. nycthemera)
    • Imperial Pheasant, (Lophura imperialis)
    • Edward’s Pheasant, (Lophura edwardsi)
    • Vietnamese Pheasant, (Lophura hatinhensis)
    • Swinhoe’s Pheasant, (Lophura swinhoii)
    • Hoogerwerf’s Pheasant, (Lophura hoogerwerfi)
    • Salvadori’s Pheasant, (Lophura inornata)
    • Crestless Fireback, (Lophura erythrophthalma)
      • Malayan Crestless Fireback, (L. e. erythrophthalma)
      • Bornean Crestless Fireback, (L. e. pyronota)
    • Crested Fireback, Lophura ignita
      • Lesser Bornean Crested Fireback, (L. i. ignita)
      • Greater Bornean Crested Fireback, (L. i. nobilis)
      • Vieilott’s Crested Fireback, (L. i. rufa)
      • Delacour’s Crested Fireback, (L. i. macartneyi)
    • Siamese Fireback, (Lophura diardi)
    • Bulwer’s Pheasant, (Lophura bulweri)
  • Genus Crossoptilon, Eared Pheasants
    • White-eared Pheasant, (Crossoptilon crossoptilon)
    • Tibetan Eared Pheasant, (Crossoptilon harmani)
    • Brown Eared Pheasant, (Crossoptilon mantchuricum)
    • Blue Eared Pheasant, (Crossoptilon auritum)
  • Genus Catreus
    • Cheer Pheasant, (Catreus wallichi)
  • Genus Syrmaticus, Long-tailed Pheasants
    • Reeve’s Pheasant, (Syrmaticus reevesi)
    • Elliot’s Pheasant, (Syrmaticus ellioti)
    • Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant, (Syrmaticus humiae)
    • Mikado Pheasant, (Syrmaticus mikado)
    • Copper Pheasant, (Syrmaticus soemmerringi)
  • Genus Phasianus, Typical Pheasants
    • Green Pheasant (Phasianus versicolor)
    • Common Pheasant, (Phasianus colchicus)
  • Genus Chrysolophus, Ruffed Pheasants
    • Golden Pheasant, (Chrysolophus pictus)
    • Lady Amherst’s Pheasant, (Chrysolophus amherstiae)
  • Genus Polyplectron, Peacock-Pheasants
    • Bronze-tailed Peacock-Pheasant, (Polyplectron chalcurum)
    • Mountain Peacock-Pheasant, (Polyplectron inopinatum)
    • Germain’s Peacock-Pheasant, (Polyplectron germaini)
    • Grey Peacock-Pheasant, (Polyplectron bicalcaratum)
    • Hainan Peacock-Pheasant, (Polyplectron katsumatae)
    • Malayan Peacock-Pheasant, (Polyplectron malacense)
    • Bornean Peacock-Pheasant, (Polyplectron schleiermacheri)
    • Palawan Peacock-Pheasant, (Polyplectron emphanum)
  • Genus Lophophorus
    • Himalayan Monal, (Lophophorus impejanus)
    • Sclater’s Monal, (Lophophorus sclateri)
    • Chinese Monal, (Lophophorus lhuysii)
  • Genus Rheinartia
    • Crested Argus, (Rheinartia ocellata)
  • Genus Argusianus
    • Great Argus, (Argusianus argus)
    • Double-banded Argus, (Argusianus bipunctatus )
  • Genus Pavo
    • Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus)
    • Green Peafowl, (Pavo muticus)
  • Genus Afropavo
    • Congo Peacock, (Afropavo congensis)



By norazmibinahmad Posted in Famili


Feral Pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in flight

Feral Pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in flight

Pigeons and doves constitute the bird family Columbidae within the order Columbiformes, which include some 300 species of near passerines. In general terms “dove” and “pigeon” are used somewhat interchangeably. In ornithological practice, there is a tendency for “dove” to be used for smaller species and “pigeon” for larger ones, but this is in no way consistently applied, and historically the common names for these birds involve a great deal of variation between the terms “dove” and “pigeon.” This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones. Young doves and pigeons are called “squabs.”

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks, and have short slender bills with a fleshy cere. The species commonly referred to just as “pigeon” is the Feral Rock Pigeon, common in many cities.

Doves and pigeons build relatively flimsy nests from sticks and other debris, which may be placed in trees, on ledges or on the ground, depending on species. They lay one or two eggs, and both parents care for the young, which leave the nest after 7 to 28 days.[1] Doves feed on seeds, fruit and plants. Unlike most other birds (but see flamingo), the doves and pigeons produce “crop milk”, which is secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop. Both sexes produce this highly nutritious substance to feed to the young.


The Common Ground Dove is among the smallest species in the family

The Common Ground Dove is among the smallest species in the family

Pigeons and doves exhibit considerable variations in size. The largest species are the crowned pigeons of New Guinea, which are nearly turkey-sized, at a weight of 2-4 kilograms (4.4-8.8 lbs.) The smallest are the New World ground-doves of the genus Columbina, which are the same size as a House Sparrow and weigh as little as 22 grams. With a total length of more than 50 centimeters (19 in) and weight of almost a kilo (2 lb), the largest arboreal species is the Marquesan Imperial Pigeon, while the Dwarf Fruit Dove, which may measure as little as 13 centimeters (5.1 in), has a marginally smaller total length than any other species from this family.Smaller species tend to be known as doves, while larger species as pigeons, but there is no taxonomic basis for distinguishing between the two.

Overall, the Columbidae tend to have short bills and legs, small heads on large compact bodies. The wings are large and have low wing loadings; pigeons have strong wing muscles (wing muscles comprise 31–44% of their body weight) and are amongst the strongest fliers of all birds. They are also highly maneuverable in flight.

The plumage of the family is variable. Granivorous species tend to have dull plumage, with a few exceptions, whereas the frugivorous species have brightly coloured plumage.[2] The Ptilinopus fruit doves are some of the brightest coloured pigeons, with the three endemic species of Fiji and the Indian Ocean Alectroenas being amongst the brightest coloured. Pigeons and doves may be sexually monochromatic or dichromatic. In addition to bright colours pigeons may sport crests or other ornamentation.

Like some other birds, the Columbidae have no gall bladder.[3] Some medieval naturalists concluded that they have no gall, which in the medieval theory of the four humours explained the allegedly sweet disposition of doves.[4] In fact, however, they do have gall (as Aristotle already realised), which is secreted directly into the gut.

Distribution and habitat

The Common Bronzewing has a widespread distribution across all of Australia and lives in most habitat types except dense rainforest and the driest deserts

The Common Bronzewing has a widespread distribution across all of Australia and lives in most habitat types except dense rainforest and the driest deserts

Pigeons and doves are distributed everywhere on Earth, except for the driest areas of the Sahara Desert, Antarctica and its surrounding islands and the high Arctic. They have colonised most of the world’s oceanic islands, reaching eastern Polynesia and the Chatham Islands in the Pacific, Mauritius, the Seychelles and Réunion in the Indian Ocean, and the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean.

The family has adapted to most of the habitats available on the planet. The largest number of species are found in tropical forests and woodlands, where they may be arboreal, terrestrial or semi-terrestrial. Various species also inhabit savannas, grasslands, deserts, temperate woodlands and forests, mangrove forests, and even the barren sands and gravels of atolls.

Some species have large natural ranges. The Eared Dove ranges across the entirety of South America from Colombia to Tierra Del Fuego, the Eurasian Collared Dove has a massive (if discontinuous) distribution from Britain across Europe, the Middle East, India, Pakistan and China, and the Laughing Dove across most of sub-Saharan Africa as well as India,Pakistan and the Middle-east. Other species have a tiny restricted distribution; this is most common in island endemics. The Whistling Dove is endemic to the tiny Kadavu Island in Fiji, the Caroline Ground-dove is restricted to two islands, Truk and Pohnpei in the Caroline Islands and the Grenada Dove is restricted to Grenada in the Caribbean. Some continental species also have tiny distributions; for example the Black-banded Fruit Dove is restricted to a small area of the Arnhem Land of Australia, the Somali Pigeon is restricted to a tiny area of northern Somalia, and Moreno’s Ground Dove is restricted to the area around Salta and Tucuman in northern Argentina.

California High Desert Mourning Dove and Squabs Nesting in Protected Cactus Palace.

California High Desert Mourning Dove and Squabs Nesting in Protected Cactus Palace.

The Zebra Dove has been widely introduced around the world.

The Zebra Dove has been widely introduced around the world.

The largest range of any species is that of the Rock Dove. The species had a large natural distribution from Britain and Ireland to northern Africa, across Europe, Arabia, Central Asia, India, the Himalayas and up into China and Mongolia. The range of the species increased dramatically upon domestication as the species went feral in cities around the world. The species is currently resident across most of North America, and has established itself in cities and urban areas in South America, sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. The species is not the only pigeon to have increased its range due to actions of man; several other species have become established outside of their natural range after escaping captivity, and other species have increased their natural ranges due to habitat changes caused by human activities.


The White-bellied Green Pigeon feeding on fruit

The White-bellied Green Pigeon feeding on fruit

Seeds and fruit form the major component of the diet of pigeons and doves. In fact, the family can be divided into the seed eating or granivorous species (subfamily Columbinae) and the fruit eating or frugivorous species (the other four subfamilies). The granivorous typically feed on seed found on the ground, whereas the species that feed on fruit and mast tend to feed in trees. There are morphological adaptations that can be used to distinguish between the two groups, granivorous species tend to have thick walls in the gizzards, whereas the frugivores tend to have thin walls. In addition fruit eating species have short intestines whereas those that eat seeds have longer ones. Frugivores are capable of clinging to branches and even hang upside down to reach fruit.[2]

In addition to fruit and seeds a number of other food items are taken by many species. Some species, particularly the ground-doves and quail-doves take a large number of prey items such as insects and worms. One species, the Atoll Fruit Dove is specialised in taking insect and reptile prey. Snails, moths and other insects are taken by White-crowned Pigeons, Orange Doves and Ruddy Ground Doves.

Evolutionary speculations

This family is a highly coherent group with no members showing obvious links with other bird families, or vice versa. The dodo and solitaires are clearly related, as discussed below, but equally lacking in obvious links with other bird families. The limited fossil record also consists only of unequivocal Columbidae species. Links to the sandgrouse and parrots have been suggested, but resemblances to the first group are due to convergent evolution[citation needed] and the second depend on the parrot-like features of the Tooth-billed Pigeon. However, the distinctive features of that bird seem to have arisen from its specialized diet rather than a real relationship to the parrots[citation needed].

The family is usually divided into five subfamilies, but this is probably inaccurate. For example, the American ground and quail doves which are usually placed in the Columbinae seem to be two distinct subfamilies.The order presented here follows Baptista et al. (1997) with some updates (Johnson & Clayton 2000, Johnson et al. 2001, Shapiro et al. 2002).

The arrangement of genera and naming of subfamilies is in some cases provisional because analysis of different DNA sequences yield results that differ, often radically, in the placement of certain (mainly Indo-Australian) genera. This ambiguity, probably caused by long branch attraction, seems to confirm that the first pigeons evolved in the Australasian region, and that the “Treronidae” and allied forms (crowned and pheasant pigeons, for example) represent the earliest radiation of the group.

As the Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire are in all likelihood part of the Indo-Australian radiation that produced the 3 small subfamilies mentioned above with the fruit doves and -pigeons (including the Nicobar Pigeon), they are here included as a subfamily Raphinae, pending better material evidence of their exact relationships.

Exacerbating these issues, columbids are not well represented in the fossil record. No truly primitive forms have been found to date. The genus Gerandia has been described from Early Miocene deposits of France, but while it was long believed to be a pigeon it is more likely a sandgrouse. Fragmentary remains of a probably “ptilinopine” Early Miocene pigeon were found in the Bannockburn Formation of New Zealand and described as Rupephaps; “Columba” prattae from roughly contemporary deposits of Florida is nowadays tentatively separated in Arenicolumba, but its distinctness from Patagioenas needs to be more firmly established. Apart from that, all other fossils belong to extant genera. For these, and for the considerable number of more recently extinct prehistoric species, see the respective genus accounts.

Emerald Dove, Chalcophaps indica, native to tropical southern Asia and Australia

Emerald Dove, Chalcophaps indica, native to tropical southern Asia and Australia

Luzon Bleeding-heart Pigeon Gallicolumba crinigera, native to the Philippines

Luzon Bleeding-heart Pigeon Gallicolumba crinigera, native to the Philippines

Ruddy Ground Dove

Ruddy Ground Dove


A list of all the species, sortable by common and scientific name, is at list of Columbidae species

Family Columbidae

  • Subfamily Columbinae– typical pigeons & doves
    • Genus Columba including Aplopelia – Old World pigeons (33-34 living species, 2-3 recently extinct)
    • Genus Streptopelia including Stigmatopelia and Nesoenas[verification needed] – turtledoves (14-18 living species)
    • Genus Patagioenas – American pigeons; formerly in Columba (17 species)
    • Genus Ectopistes – Passenger Pigeon; formerly Leptotilinae (extinct; 1914)
    • Genus Macropygia (10 species)
    • Genus Reinwardtoena (3 species)
    • Genus Turacoena (2 species)
  • Subfamily N.N.– Bronzewings and relatives
    • Genus Turtur – African wood-doves (5 species; tentatively placed here)
    • Genus Oena – Namaqua Dove (tentatively placed here)
    • Genus Chalcophaps (2 species)
    • Genus Henicophaps (2 species)
    • Genus Phaps (3 species)
    • Genus Ocyphaps – Crested Pigeon
    • Genus Geophaps (3 species)
    • Genus Petrophassa – rock-pigeons (2 species)
    • Genus Geopelia (3–5 species)
  • Subfamily Leptotilinae– Zenaidine and quail-doves
    • Genus Zenaida (7 species)
    • Genus Leptotila (11 species)
    • Genus Geotrygon – quail-doves (16 species)
    • Genus Starnoenas – Blue-headed Quail-Dove
  • Subfamily Columbininae– American ground doves
    • Genus Columbina (7 species)
    • Genus Claravis (3 species)
    • Genus Metriopelia (4 species)
    • Genus Scardafella – possibly belongs into Columbina (2 species)
    • Genus Uropelia – Long-tailed Ground Dove
  • Subfamily N.N.– Indopacific ground doves
    • Genus Gallicolumba (16-17 living species, 3-4 recently extinct)
    • Genus Trugon – Thick-billed Ground Pigeon
  • Subfamily Otidiphabinae– Pheasant Pigeon
    • Genus Otidiphaps – Pheasant Pigeon
  • Subfamily Didunculinae– Tooth-billed Pigeon
    • Genus Didunculus – Tooth-billed Pigeon
  • Subfamily Gourinae– crowned pigeons
    • Genus Goura (3 species)
  • Subfamily N.N. (“Treroninae”)– green and fruit doves and imperial pigeons
    • Genus Ducula – imperial-pigeons (36 species)
    • Genus Lopholaimus – Topknot Pigeon
    • Genus Hemiphaga (2 species)
    • Genus Cryptophaps – Sombre Pigeon
    • Genus Gymnophaps – mountain-pigeons (3 species)
    • Genus Ptilinopus – fruit doves (some 50 living species, 1-2 recently extinct)
    • Genus Natunaornis – Viti Levu Giant Pigeon (prehistoric)
    • Genus Drepanoptila – Cloven-feathered Dove
    • Genus Alectroenas – blue pigeons (3 living species)
  • Subfamily Raphinae– didines
    • Genus Raphus – Dodo (extinct; late 17th century)
    • Genus Pezophaps – Rodrigues Solitaire (extinct; c.1730)
  • Placement unresolved
    • Genus Caloenas – Nicobar Pigeon
    • Genus Treron – green pigeons (23 species)
    • Genus Phapitreron – brown doves (3 species)
    • Genus Leucosarcia – Wonga Pigeon
    • Genus Microgoura – Choiseul Crested Pigeon (extinct; early 20th century)
    • Genus Dysmoropelia – Saint Helena Dove (extinct)
    • Genus Bountyphaps – Henderson Island Archaic Pigeon (prehistoric)


By norazmibinahmad Posted in Famili


The bird family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings, about 64 to 66 species in all.

Snowy Plover (Charadrius nivosus)


They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings, but most species of lapwing may have more rounded wings. Their bill are usually straight (except for the Wrybill) and short, their toes are short, hind toe could be reduced or absent, depending on species. Most Charadriidae also have relatively short tails, the Killdeer is the exception. In most genera, the sexes are similar, very little sexual dimorphism occurs between sexes. They range in size from the Collared Plover, at 26 grams and 14 cm (5.5 inches), to the Masked Lapwing, at 368 grams (13 oz) and 35 cm (14 inches).


They are distributed through open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions: the Inland Dotterel, for example, prefers stony ground in the deserts of central and western Australia.

Diet and feeding

They hunt by sight, rather than by feel as longer-billed waders like snipe do. Foods eaten include aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates such as insects, worms, molluscs and crustaceans depending on habitat, and are usually obtained by a run-and-pause technique, rather than the steady probing of some other wader groups. They also feed on plant material.


While breeding, they defend their territories with highly visible aerial displays. Charadriidae are protective over their eggs and offspring. The parents protect their young by uttering an alarm call, performing distraction display and they may even attack the predator or intruder. Both parents take care of their offspring. The chicks are precocial; their parents do not feed them. Most species are monogamous, while less are polygamous.

Most members of the family are known as plovers, lapwings or dotterels. These were rather vague terms which were not applied with any great consistency in the past. In general, larger species have often been called lapwings, smaller species plovers or dotterels and there are in fact two clear taxonomic sub-groups: most lapwings belong to the subfamily Vanellinae, most plovers and dotterels to Charadriinae.

The trend in recent years has been to rationalise the common names of the Charadriidae. For example, the large and very common Australian bird traditionally known as the ‘Spur-winged Plover’, is now the Masked Lapwing; the former ‘Sociable Plover’ is now the Sociable Lapwing.




Famili Bil Nama Saintifik Nama Biasa
Charadriidae (Kedidi) 1 Charadrius asiaticus Eastern Dotteral Kedidi Caspian
Columbidae (Punai) 2 Chalcophaps indica Punai Tanah
3 Treron olax Punai Siul
4 Treron vernans Punai Gading
5 Treron seimundi Punai Gunung
Dromadidae (Kedidi Ketam) 6 Dromas ardeola Kedidi Ketam
Phasianidae (Ayam hutan, Pikau) 7 Coturnix chinensis Pikau
8 Gallus gallus Ayam Hutan
Rallidae (Ruak-ruak) 9 Amaurornis phoenicurus Ruak-ruak
10 Poliolimnas cinereus Sintar Perut Kelabu
11 Treron seimundi Punai Gunung
12 Treron vernans Puinai Gading
Scolopacidae (Kedidi, Berkek) 13 Calidris subminuta Kedidi Jari Panjang
14 Gallinago gallinago Berkek Ekor Kipas
15 Gallinago nemoricola Berkek Kayu
16 Heteroscelus incanus Kucau Tongkeng Kelabu
Famili Bil Nama Saintifik Nama Biasa
Anatidae 1 Anas bernieri Itik Bernieri
(Itik, Angsa, swans) 2 Anas formosa Itik Russia
3 Branta ruficollis Angsa Dada Merah
4 Cairina moschata Itik Nila
5 Coscoroba coscoroba Coscoroba Swan
6 Cygnus melanocoryphus Black-necked Swan
7 Dendrocygna arborea Black-billed Wood-Duck
8 Dendrocygna autumnalis Black-bellied Whistling Duck
9 Oxyura leucocephala Itik Kepala Putih
10 Sarkidiornis melanotos Itik Sisir
Apodidae (Layang-Layang) 11 Collocalia esculenta Layang-layang Perut Putih
Balaenicipitidae (Shoebill) 12 Balaeniceps rex Shoebill
Burhinidae (Sisir) 13 Burhinus bistriatus Double-striped Thick-knee
Cacatuidae 14 Cacatua spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Kakak tua
(Kakak tua) 15 Callocephalon fimbriatum Gang-gang Cockatoo
16 Calyptorhynchus spp. Kakaktua Hitam
17 Eolophus roseicapillus Galah
Capitonidae (Barbet) 18 Semnornis ramphastinus Toucan Barbet
Cathartidae (New world vultures) 19 Sarcoramphus papa King Vulture
Ciconiidae (Botak) 20 Ciconia nigra Botak Hitam
Columbidae (Punai) 21 Gallicolumba luzonica Bleeding-heart Dove
22 Goura spp. Crowned Pigeons
23 Nesoenas mayeri Pink Pigeon
Cotingidae (Cotingas) 24 Cephalopterus ornatus Amazonian Umbrellabird
25 Cephalopterus penduliger Long-wattled Umbrellabird
26 Rupicola spp. Cocks-of-the- Rock
Cracidae 27 Crax alberti Albert’s Currasow
 (Chachalacas,currassows, guans) 28 Crax daubentoni Daubenton’s Currasow
29 Crax globulosa Wattled Currasow
30 Crax rubra Globose Currasow
31 Ortalis vetula Chalaca
32 Pauxi pauxi Helmeted Currasow
33 Penelope purpurascens Crested Guan
34 Penelopina nigra Black Chachalaca
Emberizidae 35 Gubernatrix cristata Yellow Cardinal
(Cardinals,tanagers) 36 Paroaria capitata Yellow-billed Cardinal
37 Paroaria coronata Red-crested Cardinal
38 Tangara fastuosa Seven-colored Tanager
Estrildidae 39 Lonchura fuscans Dusky Munia
(Mannikins, waxbills, 40 Lonchura leucogastra White-bellied Munia
munia) 41 Lonchura maja White-headed Munia
42 Lonchura malcca Black-headed Munia
43 Lonchura oryzivora Java Sparrow
44 Lonchura punctulata Scaly-breasted Munia
45 Lonchura striata White-rumped Munia
46 Amandava formosa Green Avadavat
47 Poephila cincta cincta Southern Black-throated Finch
Fringillidae 48 Carduelis yarrellii Yellow-faced Siskin
(Finches) 49 Serinus gularis Streaky-headed seed-eater
50 Serinus leucopygus White-rumped seed-eater
51 Serinus mozambicus Yellow-fronted canary
Gruidae 52 Balearica spp. Keria Mahkota
(Keria) 53 Grus spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Keria
Loriidae 54 Chalcopsitta spp. Lory
(Lories, lorikeets) 55 Charmosyna spp. Lorikeet
56 Eos spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Red Lory
57 Glossopsitta spp. Lorikeet
58 Lorius spp. Naped Lory
59 Neopsittacus musschenbroekii Yellow-billed Lorikeet
60 Neopsittacus pullicauda Emerald Lorikeet
61 Oreopsittacus arfaki Plum-faced Lorikeet
62 Phigys solitarius Collared Lory
63 Pseudeos fuscata Dusky Lory
64 Psitteuteles spp. Lorikeet
65 Trichoglossus spp.
66 Vini spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Lorikeet
Muscicapidae 67 Acrocephalus rodericanus Rodrigues Brush-Warbler
(Sambar) 68 Cyornis ruckii Sambar Ruki
69 Garrulax canorus Rimba Hawai
70 Leiothrix argentauris Rimba Telinga Perak
71 Leiothrix lutea Rimba Paruh Merah
72 Liocichla omeiensis Emei Shan Liocichla
73 Terpsiphone bourbonnensis Mascarene Paradise-Flycatcher
Musophagidae (Turacos) 74 Tauraco porphyeolophus Purple-crested Turaco
75 Tauraco spp. Turacos
Otididae 76 Otididae spp.
(Jaguh) 77 Ardeotis spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Jaguh
78 Eupodotis spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Jaguh
79 Neotis spp. Jaguh
80 Otis tarda Jaguh Rumput
81 Tetrax tetrax Jaguh Kecil
Paradisaeidae 82 Astrapia spp. Astrapias
(Cenderawasih) 83 Cicinnurus spp. Cenderawasih
84 Cnemophilus spp. Cenderawasih
85 Epimachus spp. Sicklebill
86 Loboparadisea sericea Burung Dewata Berpial
87 Lophorina superba Superb Bird of Paradise
88 Lycocorax pyrrhopterus Burung Gagak Syurga
89 Macgregoria pulchra Macgregor’s Bird of Paradise
90 Manucodia spp. Manucodes
91 Melampitta spp. Melampittas
92 Paradigalla spp. Paradigallas
93 Paradisaea spp. Cenderawasih
94 Parotia spp. Parotia
95 Pteridophora alberti Burung Dewata Pembawa
96 Ptiloris spp. Riflebirds
97 Seleucidis melanoleuca Burung Dewata Dua Belas Kawat
98 Semioptera wallacii Burung Plat
Phoenicopteridae (Flamingos) 99 Phoenicopterus spp. Flamingos
Ploceidae 100 Ploceus philippinus Ciak Tempua
(Weavers, whydahs) 101 Loriculus galgulus Serindit
Psittacidae 102 Agapornis spp. (kecuali Agapornis roseicollis) Lovebirds
(Amazon, macaws, 103 Alisterus spp. King Parrot
parakeets, Bayan Nuri) 104 Amazona spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Amazon Parrot
105 Aprosmictus erythropterus Red-winged Parrot
106 Aprosmictus jonquilaceus Olive-shouldered Parrot
107 Ara spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Macaw
108 Aratinga spp. Conure
109 Barnardius zonarius Australian Ringneck
110 Bolbopsittacus lunulatus Guaiabero
111 Bolborhynchus spp.
112 Brotogeris spp.
113 Coracopsis spp.
114 Cyanoliseus spp. Burrowing Parakeet
115 Cyanoramphus spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Parakeet
116 Cyclopsitta spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Parrot
117 Deroptyus accipitrinus Hawk-headed Parrot
118 Diopsittaca nobilis Hahn’s Macaw
119 Eclectus roratus Electus Parrot
120 Enicognathus spp. Slender-billed Parakeet
121 Forpus spp. Parrotlet
122 Geoffroyus spp. Lorito
123 Graydidascalus brachyurus Short-tailed Parrot
124 Hapalopsittaca spp.
125 Lathamus discolor Swift Parrot
126 Leptosittaca branickii Golden-plumed Conure
127 Loriculus spp. Hanging Parrot
128 Micropsitta spp. Pygmy Parrot
129 Myiopsitta spp.
130 Nandayus nenday Black-headed Conure
131 Nannopsittaca dachilleae Amazonian Parakeet
132 Nannopsittaca panychlora Tepui Parakeet
133 Neophema spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Parrot
134 Neopsephotus bourkii Bourke’s Parrot
135 Nestor meridionalis Kaka
136 Nestor notabilis Kea
137 Northiella haematogaster Blue Bonnet
138 Orthopsittaca manilata Red-bellied Macaw
139 Pionites leucogaster White-bellied Parrot
140 Pionites melanocephala Black-headed Parrot
141 Pionopsitta spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Parrot
142 Pionus spp.
143 Platycercus spp. Rossela
144 Poicephalus spp.
145 Polytelis spp.
146 Primolus auricollis Golden-collared Macaw
147 Prioniturus spp.
148 Prosopeia spp.
149 Psephotus spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Parrot
150 Psilopsiagon aurifrons Golden-fronted Parakeet
151 Psilopsiagon aymara Grey-hooded Parakeet
152 Psittacella spp.
153 Psittacula spp. (kecuali Psittacula krameri dan spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua)
154 Psittaculirostris spp.
155 Psittacus erithacus Grey Parrot
156 Psittinus cyanurus Blue-rumped Parrot
157 Psittrichas fulgidus Pesquet’s Parrot
158 Purpureicephalus spurius Red-capped Parrot
159 Pyrrhura spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Parakeet
160 Tanygnathus spp. Parrot
161 Touit spp.
162 Triclaria malachitacea
Pycnonotidae (Merbah) 163 Pycnonotus jocosus Merbah Telinga Merah
Ramphastidae (Toucans) 164 Baillonius bailloni Saffron Toucanet
165 Pteroglossus aracari Black-necked Aracari
166 Pteroglossus castanotis Chestnut-eared Aracari
167 Pteroglossus viridis Green Aracari
168 Ramphastos dicolorus Red-breasted Toucan
169 Ramphastos sulfuratus Keel-billed Toucan
170 Ramphastos toco Toco Toucan
171 Ramphastos tucanus Red-billed Toucan
172 Ramphastos vitellinus Channel-billed Toucan
173 Selenidera maculirostris Spot-billed Toucanet
Rheidae (Rheas) 174 Pterocnemia pennata pennata Darwin’s Rhea
175 Rhea americana Common Rhea
Spheniscidae (Penguins) 176 Spheniscus demersus Penguin Afrika
Sturnidae (Tiong) 177 Gracula religiosa Tiong Mas
Threskiornithidae 178 Eudocimus ruber Scarlet Ibis
(Sekendi, spoonbills) 179 Geronticus calvus Bald Ibis
180 Platalea leucorodia Spoonbill
Trochilidae 181 Abeillia abeillei Emerald-chinned Hummingbird
(Hummingbirds) 182 Adelomyia melanogenys Speckled Hummingbird
183 Aglaeactis spp. Sunbeams
184 Aglaiocercus spp.
185 Amazilia spp.
186 Androdon aequatorialis Tooth-billed Hummingbird
187 Anopetia gounellei Broad-tipped Hermit
188 Anthocephala floriceps Blossomcrown
189 Anthracothorax spp.
190 Archilochus alexandri Black-chinned Hummingbird
191 Archilochus colubris Ruby-throated Hummingbird
192 Atthis ellioti Wine-throated Hummingbird
193 Atthis heloisa Bumblebee Hummingbird
194 Augastes spp.
195 Basilinna leucotis White-eared Hummingbird
196 Basilinna xantusii Black-fronted Hummingbird
197 Boissonneaua spp Coronets
198 Calliphlox spp. Woodstars
199 Calothorax lucifer Lucifer Hummingbird
200 Calothorax pulcher Beautiful Hummingbird
201 Calypte spp.
202 Campylopterus spp.
203 Chaetocercus spp. Woodstars
204 Chalcostigma spp. Thornbills
205 Chalybura spp.
206 Chlorostilbon spp.
207 Chrysolampis mosquitus Ruby-topaz Hummingbird
208 Chrysuronia oenone Golden-tailed Sapphire
209 Clytolaema rubricauda Brazilian Ruby
210 Coeligena spp. Starfrontlet
211 Colibri spp.
212 Cyanophaia bicolour Blue-headed Hummingbird
213 Cynanthus spp.
214 Damophila julie Violet-bellied Hummingbird
215 Discosura spp. Thorntails
216 Doricha spp. Sheartails
217 Doryfera spp. Lancebills
218 Elvira spp.
219 Ensifera ensifera Sword-billed Hummingbird
220 Eriocnemis spp. Pufflegs
221 Eugenes fulgens Magnificent Hummingbird
222 Eulampis spp. Caribs
223 Eupherusa spp.
224 Eutoxeres spp. Sicklebills
225 Florisuga spp. Jacobins
226 Glaucis spp. (kecuali spesies yang termasuk dalam Jadual Kedua) Hermits
227 Goethalsia bella Rufous-cheeked Hummingbird
228 Goldmania violiceps Violet-capped Hummingbird
229 Haplophaedia spp. Pufflegs
230 Heliactin bilopha Horned Sungem
231 Heliangelus spp. Sunangels
232 Heliodoxa spp.
233 Heliomaster spp. Starthroats
234 Heliothryx spp.
235 Hylocharis spp.
236 Hylonympha macrocerca Scissor-tailed Hummingbird
237 Klais guimeti Violet-headed Hummingbird
238 Lafresnaya lafresnayi Mountain Velvetbreast
239 Lampornis spp.
240 Lamprolaima rhami Garnet-throated Hummingbird
241 Lepidopyga spp.
242 Lesbia spp. Trainbeacers
243 Leucippus spp.
244 Leucochloris albicollis White-throated Hummingbird
245 Loddigesia mirabilis Marvellous Spatuletail
246 Lophornis spp.
247 Mellisuga spp.
248 Metallura spp.
249 Michochera albocoronata Snowcap
250 Microstilbon burmeisteri Slender-tailed Woodstar
251 Myrmia micrura Short-tailed Woodstar
252 Myrtis spp.
253 Ocreatus underwoodii Booted Raquet-tail
254 Opisthoprora euryptera Mountain Avocetbill
255 Oreonympha nobilis Bearded Mountaineer
256 Oreotrochilus spp. Hillstars
257 Orthorhyncus cristatus Antillean Crested Hummingbird
258 Oxypogon guerinii Bearded Helmetcrest
259 Panterpe insignis Fiery-throated Hummingbird
260 Patagona gigas Giant Hummingbird
261 Phaethornis spp. Hermits
262 Phlogophilus spp. Piedtails
263 Polyonymus caroli Bronze-tailed Comet
264 Polytmus spp. Goldenthroats
265 Pterophanes cyanopterus Great Sapphirewing
266 Ramphodon naevius Saw-billed Hermit
267 Ramphomicron spp. Thornbills
268 Rhodopis vesper Oasis Hummingbird
269 Sappho sparganura Red-tailded Comet Hummingbird
270 Selasphorus spp.
271 Sephanoides spp. Firecrown
272 Stellula calliope Calliope Hummingbird
273 Stephanoxis lalandi Plovercrest
274 Sternoclyta cyanopectus Violet-chested Hummingbird
275 Taphrolesbia griseiventris Grey-bellied Comet
276 Thalurania spp. Woodnymphs
277 Thaumastura cora Peruvian Sheartail
278 Threnetes spp. Barbthroat
279 Tilmatura dupontii Sparkling-tailded Barbthroat
280 Topaza pella Crimson Topaz
281 Trochilus spp. Streamertails
282 Urochroa bougueri White-tailed Hillstar
283 Urosticte spp. Whitetips
Turdidae (Thrushes) 284 Copsychus malabaricus Murai Batu
285 Copsychus saularis Murai Kampung
286 Calidris minutillus Kedidi Jari Panjang
Zosteropidae (Mata Putih) 287 Zosterops palpebrosa Kelicap Kunyit
Famili Bil Nama Saintifik Nama Biasa
Accipitridae (Lang, Hering) 1 Accipiter badius Lang Bido
2 Accipiter gularis Lang Sawah
3 Accipiter soloensis Lang Rajawali
4 Accipiter trivirgatus Lang Sika
5 Accipiter virgatus Lang Garang
6 Aegypius monachus Hering Hitam
7 Aquila clanga Lang Bintik
8 Aquila heliaca Lang Gunung
9 Aquila nipalensis Helang Padang
10 Aviceda jerdoni Lang Baza
11 Aviceda leuphotes Lang Baza Berjambul
12 Butastur indicus Lang Rintik
13 Buteo buteo Common Buzzard
14 Circaetus gallicus Helang Ular
15 Circus aeruginosus Western Marsh Harrier
16 Circus cyaneus Lang Sayap Hitam
17 Circus melanoeucos Lang Tangling
18 Circus spilonotus Lang Berjambul
19 Elanus caerulens Black-shouldered Kite
20 Gyps bengalensis Hereng Tongkeng Puteh
21 Gyps himalayansis Hereng Himalaya
22 Gyps indicus Hereng Paruh Panjang
23 Haliaeetus leucogaster Lang Siput
24 Haliastur indus Lang Merah
25 Hiraaetus kieneri Lang Bandong
26 Hiraaetus pennatus Helang Junam
27 Ichthyophaga humilis Lang Kangok
28 Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus Lang Kepala Kelabu
29 Ictinaetus malayensis Lang Hitam
30 Machearhamphus alcinus Lang Malam
31 Milvus migrans Lang Gelap
32 Pernis ptylorhynchus Lang Lebah
33 Sarcogyps calvus Hering Kepala Merah
34 Spilornis cheela Lang Berjambul
MS 114 35 Spilornis kinabaluensis Mountain Serpent-eagle
36 Spizaetus alboniger Lang Hantu
37 Spizaetus cirrhatus Lang Hindek
38 Spizaetus nanus Lang Selat
39 Spizaetus nipalensis Lang Gunung
40 Accipiter spp. Goshawk Lang Adalbert
41 Aquila adalberti Lang
42 Aquila spp.
43 Asturina nitida Grey-lined Hawk
44 Aviceda spp. Cuckoo-hawks
45 Busarellus nigricollis Black-collared Hawk
46 Butastur spp. Buzzard
47 Buteo spp. Common Buzzard
48 Buteogallus spp. Great Black-hawks
49 Chelictinia riocourii African Swallow-tailed Kite
50 Chondrohierax spp. Kite
51 Chondrohierax uncinatus wilsonii Cuban Hook-billed Kite
52 Circaetus spp. Snake Eagles
53 Circus spp. Harriers
54 Dryotriorchis spectabilis African Serpent-eagle
55 Elanoides forficatus Swallow-tailed Kite
56 Elanus spp. Kite
57 Erythrotriorchis buergersi Chestnut-shouldered Hawk
58 Erythrotriorchis radiatus Red Goshawk
59 Eutriorchis astur Madagascar Serpent-eagle
60 Gampsonyx swainsonii Pearl Kite
61 Geranoaetus melanoleucus Black-chested Buzzardeagle
62 Geranospiza caerulescens Crane Hawk
63 Gypaetus barbatus Bearded Vulture
64 Gypohierax angolensis Vulturine Fish-eagle
65 Gyps spp. Vultures
66 Haliaeetus albicilla Helang Laut Kelabu
67 Haliaeetus spp. Sea-eagle
68 Haliastur sphenurus Whistling Eagle
69 Hamirostra melanosternon Black-breasted Buzzard  Kite
70 Harpagus bidentatus Black-breasted Buzzard  Kite
71 Harpagus diodon Rufous-thighed Kite
72 Harpia harpyja Lang Harpy
73 Harpyhaliaetus spp. Lang
74 Henicopernis infuscatus Black Honey-buzzard
75 Henicopernis longicauda Long-tailed Honey-buzzard
76 Hieraaetus spp. Hawk-eagles
77 Ictnia mississippiensis Mississippi Kite
78 Ictnia plumbea Plumbeous Kite
79 Kaupifalco monogrammicus Lizard Buzzard
80 Leptodon cayanensis Lang Kepala Kelabu
81 Leucopternis spp. Hawks
82 Lophaetus occipitalis Long-crested Eagle
83 Lophoictinia isura Square-tailed Kite
84 Megatriorchis doriae Doria’s Goshawk
85 Melierax spp. oshawk
86 Milvus spp. Kite
87 Morphnus guianensis Lang Berjambul
88 Necrosyrtes monachus Hooded Vulture
89 Neophron percnopterus Egyptian Vulture
90 Oroaetus isidori Black and Chestnut Eagle
91 Parabuteo unicinctus Bay-winged Hawk
92 Pernis spp. Buzzard
93 Pithecophaga jefferyi Great Philippine Eagle
94 Polemaetus bellicosus Martial Eagle
95 Polyboroides radiatus Madagascar Gymnogene
96 Polyboroides typus African Gymnogene
97 Rostrhamus hamatus Slender-billed Kite
98 Rostrhamus sociabilis Snail Kite
99 Spilornis spp. Eagle
100 Spizaetus spp. Hawk-eagle
101 Stephanoaetus coronatus African Crowned Eagle
102 Terathopius ecaudatus Bateleur Eagle
103 Torgos tracheliotus Lappet-faced Vulture
104 Trigonoceps occipitalis Hering Kepala Putih
105 Urotriorchis macrourus Lang Afrika Ekor Panjang
Alaudidae (Skylark) 106 Alauda gulgula Oriental Skylark
Alcedinidae (Pekaka) 107 Alcedo atthis Pekaka Cit-Cit Kecil
108 Alcedo euryzona Pekaka Bukit
109 Alcedo meninting Pekaka Bintek-Bintek
110 Ceyx erithacus Pekaka Rimba
111 Halcyon chloris Pekaka Sungai
112 Halcyon coromanda Pekaka Belacan
113 Halcyon pileata Pekaka Kopiah Hitam
114 Halcyon smyrnensis Pekaka Belukar
115 Lacedo pulchella Pekaka Riang Rimba
116 Pelargopsis amauroptera Pekaka Sayap Kelabu
117 Pelargopsis capensis Stork-billed Kingfisher
118 Todiramphus sanctus Sacred Kingfisher
119 Actenoides concretus Pekaka Rimba Besar
Anatidae (Itik, Angsa,Swans) 120 Anas acuta Itik Muara
121 Anas clypeata Itik Sudu
122 Anas crecca Itik Eropah
123 Anas penelope Itik Eurasia
124 Anas platyrhynchos Mallard
125 Anas querquedula Itik Gargany
126 Aythya fuligula Itik Jambul
127 Cairina scutulata Serati Hutan
128 Dendrocygna arcuata Wandering Whistling Duck
129 Dendrocygna javanica Belibis
130 Nettapus coromandelianus Itik Kapas
131 Anas aucklandica Itik Coklat
132 Anas laysanensis Itik Laysan
133 Anas oustaleti Itik Pulau Marianas
134 Branta canadensis leucopareia Aleutian Canada Goose
135 Branta sandvicensis Angsa Hawaii
136 Rhodonessa caryophyllacea Pink-headed Duck
Anhingidae (Darters) 137 Anhinga melanogaster Pependang Timur
Apodidae (Layang-Layang) 138 Aerodramus brevirosrtris Layang-Layang Himalaya
139 Aerodramus salanganus Mossy-nest Swiftlet
140 Apus affinis Layang-Layang Rumah
141 Apus pacificus Layang-Layang Ekor Cabang
142 Cypsiurus balasiensis Layang-Layang Asia
143 Hirundapus caudacutus Layang-layang Leher Putih
144 Hirundapus cochinchinensis Layang-layang Rengkong Putih
145 Hirundapus giganteus Layang-Layang Besar
146 Hydrochous gigas Waterfall Swiftlet
147 Raphidura leucopygialis Layang-layang Kecil
Ardeidae (Bangau, Pucong) 148 Ardea cinerea Pucong Seriap
m/s117 149 Ardea purpurea Pucong Serandau
150 Ardea sumatrana Pucong Lembu
151 Ardeola bacchus Pucong Cina
152 Ardeola grayii Pucong Bakau
153 Ardeola speciosa Pucong Jawa
154 Botaurus stellaris Pucong Danau
155 Bubulcus ibis Bangau Kendi
156 Casmerodius albus Bangau Besar
157 Egretta eulophotes Bangau Cina
158 Egretta garzetta Bangau Kecil
159 Egretta sacra Bangau Batu
160 Gorsachius melanolophus Pucong Rimau
161 Ixorbrychus cinnamomeus Pucong Bendang
162 Ixorbrychus eurhythmus Pucong Gelam
163 Ixorbrychus flavicollis Pucong Hitam
164 Ixorbrychus sinensis Pucong Merah
165 Mesophoyx intermedia Bangau Kerbau
166 Nycticorax caledonicus Pucong Kelabu
167 Nycticorax nycticorax Pucong Kuak
Atrichornithidae (Scrub-bird) 168 Atrichornis clamosus Noisy Scrub-bird
Batrachostomidae (Frogmouth) 169 Batrachostomus auritus Segan Besar
170 Batrachostomus cornutus Sunda Frogmouth
171 Batrachostomus harterti Dulit Frogmouth
172 Batrachostomus javensis Segan Jawa
173 Batrachostomus poliolophus Short-tailed Frogmouth
174 Batrachostomus stellatus Segan Bintik Mas
Bucerotidae (Enggang) 175 Aceros corrugates Enggang Berkedut
176 Rhyticeros subruficollis Enggang Belantara
177 Rhyticeros undulatus Enggang Gunong
178 Anorrhinus galeritus Enggang Belukar
179 Anthracoceros albirostris Enggang Belulang
180 Anthracoceros coronatus Pied Hornbill
181 Anthracoceros malayanus Enggang Gatal Birah
182 Buceros bicornis Enggang Papan
183 Buceros rhinoceros Enggang Lilin, Enggang Badak
184 Buceros vigil Enggang Terbang Mentua
185 Berenicornis comatus Enggang Jambul Putih
186 Rhynoplax vigil Enggang Tebang Mentua
187 Aceros nipalensis Enggang Dahan
188 Aceros spp. Enggang
189 Anorrhinus spp. Enggang
190 Anthracoceros convexus Enggang Kelingking
191 Anthracoceros spp. Enggang
192 Buceros spp. Enggang
193 Penelopides spp. Tarictic hornbill
Burhinidae (Sisir) 194 Esacus magnirostris Sisir Air
Cacatuidae (Kakak tua) 195 Cacatua goffini Kakaktua Goffin
196 Cacatua haematuropygia Kakaktua Filipina
197 Cacatua moluccensis Kakaktua Moluccan
198 Cacatua sulphurea Kakaktua Jambul Kuning
199 Probosciger aterrimus Kakaktua Raja
Campephagidae (Sewah) 200 Coracina fimbriata Sewah Kecil
201 Coracina javensis Sewah Besar
202 Coracina larvata Sewah Sunda
203 Coracina striata Sewah Rimba
204 Hemipus hirundinaceus Rembah Batu
205 Hemipus picatus Rembah Bukit
206 Lalage nigra Sewah Kapas
207 Pericrocotus divaricatus Mas Padang
208 Pericrocotus flammeus Mas Belukar
209 Pericrocotus igneus Mas Tulin
210 Pericrocotus solaris Mas Dagu Kelabu
211 Tephrodornis gularis Rembah Kayu Besar
Caprimulgidae (Nighthawks, Nightjars) 212 Caprimulgus affinis Tukang Savana
213 Caprimulgus concretus Bonarparte’s Nightjar
214 Caprimulgus indicus Tukang Kelabu, Tukang Hutan
215 Caprimulgus macrurus Tukang Kubur
216 Eurostopodus temminckii Tukang Tabtibau
217 Eurostopodus macrotis Tukang Telinga Besar
Cathartidae (New world vultures) 218 Gymnogyps californianus Kondor California
219 Vultur gryphus Kondo Andean
Charadriidae (Kedidi) 220 Charadrius alexandrinus Rapang Rantai, Kedidi Pantai
221 Charadrius dubius Rapang Biji Nangka
222 Charadrius hiaticula Rapang Gelang
223 Charadrius leschenaultii Rapang Besar
224 Charadrius mongolus Rapang Mongolia, Rapang Kecil
225 Charadrius peronii Rapang Pasir
226 Charadrius placidus Rapang Paruh Panjang
227 Charadrius veredus Rapang Timur
228 Pluvialis fulva Pacific Golden Plover
229 Pluvialis squatarola Rapang Kelabu
230 Vanellus cinereus Rapang Kepala Kelabu
231 Vanellus indicus Rapang Duit
232 Vanellus malabaricus Rapang Balung Kuning
Chloropseidae (Leafbirds) 233 Aegithina lafresnayei Kunyit Bukit
234 Aegithina tiphia Kunyit Kacat
235 Aegithina viridissima Kunyit Bakau
236 Chloropsis cochinchinensis Daun Sayap Biru
237 Chloropsis cyanopogon Daun Kecil
238 Chloropsis hardwickii Daun Paruh Oren
239 Chloropsis kinabaluensis Kinabalu Leafbird
240 Chloropsis sonnerati Daun Besar
Ciconiidae (Botak) 241 Ciconia boyciana Botak Putih Jepun
242 Ciconia episcopus Botak Leher Putih
243 Ciconia stormi Botak Leher Hitam
244 Leptoptilus javanicus Botak Kecil
245 Mycteria cinerea Botak Upeh
246 Mycteria leucocephala Botak Padi
247 Jabiru mycteria Jabiru
Columbidae (Doves, Pigeons) 248 Caloenas nicobarica Punai Mas
249 Columba argentina Merpati Perak
250 Ducula anea Pergam Besar
251 Ducula badia Pergam Gunong
252 Ducula bicolor Pergam Rawa
253 Ducula pickeringii Pergam Kelabu
254 Macropygia amboinensis Ruddy Cuckoo Dove
255 Macropygia ruficeps Tekukur Api
256 Macropygia unchall Tekukur Api Gunung
257 Ptilinopus jambu Punai Jambu
258 Ptilinopus melanospila Black-naped Fruit Dove
259 Streptopelia bitorquata Island Collared Dove
260 Streptopelia tranquebarica Tekukur Merah
261 Treron bicincta Punai Siam
262 Treron capellei Punai Bakok
263 Treron curvirostra Punai Lengguak
264 Treron fulvicollis Punai Bakau
265 Treron sphenura Punai Bukit
266 Ducula mindorensis Pergam Mindoro
Coraciidae (Roller, Dollarbird) 267 Coracias benghalensis Tiong Gajah
268 Eurystomus orientalis Tiong Batu
Corvidae (Quail-thrushes, Whipbirds, Apostle Bird) 269 Cissa chinensis Gagak Gunung
270 Cissa thalassina Gagak Ekor Pendek
271 Crypsirina temia Gagak Anting-anting
272 Dendrocitta cinerascens Gagak Borneo
273 Platylophus galericulatus Gagak Jerit
274 Platysmurus leucopterus Gagak Kambing
Cotingidae (Cotingas) 275 Cotinga maculata Banded Cotinga
276 Xipholena atropurpurea White-winged Cotinga
Cracidae (Chachalacas, Currassows,Guans) 277 Crax blumenbachii Red-billed Curassow
278 Mitu mitu Alagoas Curassow
279 Oreophasis derbianus Lord Derby’s Mountain Pheasant
280 Penelope albipennis White-winged Guan
281 Pipile jacutinga Black-fronted Curassow
282 Pipile pipile Trinidad Piping-Guan
Cuculidae (Sewah) 283 Cacomantis merulinus Sewah Mati Anak
284 Cacomantis sepulcralis Sewah Gila
285 Cacomantis sonneratti Sewah Takuweh
286 Carpococcyx radiatus Borneon Ground Cuckoo
287 Centropus bengalensis But-But Kecil
288 Centropus rectunguis But-But Besar
289 Centropus sinensis But-But Carik Anak
290 Chrysococcyx basalis Sewah Sampah
291 Chrysococcyx maculatus Sewah Tanah
292 Chrysococcyx minutillus Sewah Daun
293 Chrysococcyx russatus Gould’s Bronze Cuckoo
294 Chrysococcyx xanthorhychus Sewah Rembah
295 Clamator coromandus Sewah Kapak Merah,
296 Cuculus merulinus Plaintive Cuckoo
297 Cuculus micropterus Sewah India
298 Cuculus saturatus Sewah Dada Putih
299 Eudynamys scolopacea Sewah Tahu
300 Hierococcyx fugax Sewah Hantu
301 Hierococcyx hyperythrus Northern Hawk Cuckoo
302 Hierococcyx nisicolor Sewah Hantu
303 Hierococcyx sparveriodes Sewah Tekukur Besar
304 Hierococcyx vagans Sewah Tekukur Kecil
305 Phaenicophaeus chlorophaeus Cenok Kerak
306 Phaenicophaeus curvirostris Cenok Birah
307 Phaenicophaeus diardi Cenok Perut Hitam
308 Phaenicophaeus javanicus Cenok Api
309 Phaenicophaeus sumatranus Cenok Kecil
310 Phaenicophaeus tristis Cenok Kera
311 Surniculus lugubris Sewah Sawai
Dicaeidae (Flowerpeckers) 312 Dicaeum agile Thicked-billed Flowerpecker
313 Dicaeum chrysorrheum Yellow-vented Flowerpecker
314 Dicaeum concolor Plain Flowerpecker
315 Dicaeum cruentatum Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker
316 Dicaeum everetti rown-backed Flowerpecker
317 Dicaeum ignipectus Buff-bellied Flowerpecker
318 Dicaeum monticolum Black-side Flowerpecker
319 Dicaeum trigonostigma Orange-bellied Flowerpecker
320 Prionochilus maculatus Yellow-breasted Flowerpacker
321 Prionochilus percussus Crimson-breasted Flowerpacker
322 Prionochilus thoracicus Scarlet-breasted Flowerpacker
323 Prionochilus xanthopygius Yellow-breasted Flowerpacker
Dicruridae (Cecawi) 324 Dicrurus aeneus Cecawi Keladi
325 Dicrurus annectans Cecawi Sawai
326 Dicrurus hottentottus Cecawi Rimba
327 Dicrurus leucophaeus Cecawi Rantau
328 Dicrurus macrocercus Cecawi Rajawali
329 Dicrurus paradiseus Cecawi Anting-anting
330 Dicrurus remifer Cecawi Hamba Kera
Diomedeidae (Albatross) 331 Diomedea albatrus Short-tailed Albatross
Emberizidae (Cardinals, Tanagers) 332 Emberiza aureola Yellow-breasted Bunting
333 Emberiza fucata Chestnut-eared Bunting
334 Emberiza melanocephala Cakar Kepala Hitam
335 Emberiza pusilla Cakar Kecil
Eurylaimidae (Takau) 336 Calyptomena hosei Hose’s Broadbill
337 Calyptomena viridis Takau Selawit
338 Calyptomena whiteheadi Whitehead’s Broadbill
339 Corydon sumatranus Takau Rimba Hujan
340 Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos Takau Rakit
341 Eurylaimus javanicus Takau Rimba
342 Eurylaimus ochromalus Takau Hitam Kuning
343 Psarisomus dalhousiae Takau Injap
344 Serilophus lunatus Takau Tanda Hujan
Falconidae (Falko) 345 Falco amurensis Falko Lalat
346 Falco peregrinus Falko Belalang
347 Falco severus Oriental Hobby
348 Falco subbuteo Falko Utara
349 Falco tinnuculus Falko Serani
350 Caracara lutosa Guadalupe Caracara
351 Caracara plancus Common Caracara
352 Daptrius ater Black Caracara
353 Falco araea Falko Seychelles
354 Falco jugger Falko Awan
355 Falco newtoni Falko Madagascar
356 Falco pelegrinoides Falko Balbary
357 Falco punctatus Falko Mauritius
358 Falco rusticolus Gyrfalcon
359 Falco spp. Hawk
360 Herpetotheres cachinnans Laughing Falcon
361 Ibycter americanus Red-throated Caracara
362 Micrastur spp. Forest Falcons
363 Microchierax fringillarius Falko Rajawali
364 Microhierax latifrons White-fronted Falconet
365 Microhierax spp. Falconet
366 Milvago chimachima Yellow-Headed Caracara
367 Milvago chimango Chimango Caracara
368 Phalcoboenus spp. Caracara
369 Polihierax insignis Falko Tongkeng Putih
370 Polihierax semitorquatus African Pygmy Falcon
371 Spiziapteryx circumcinctus Spot-winged Falcon
Fregatidae (Burung simbang) 372 Fregata andrewsi Simbang Pulau Christmas
373 Fregata ariel Simbang Kecil
374 Fregata minor Simbang Besar
Fringillidae (Cakar) 375 Carduelis cucullata Red Siskin
Glareolidae (Coursers, Pranticoles) 376 Glareola maldivarum Lelayang Padang
377 Stiltia isabella Lelayang Australia
Gruidae (Keria) 378 Grus antigone Keria Timur
379 Grus americana Whooping Crane
380 Grus canadensis nesiotes Cuban Sandhill Crane
381 Grus canadensis pulla Mississippi Sandhill Crane
382 Grus japonensis Red-crowned Crane
383 Grus leucogeranus Siberian White Crane
384 Grus monacha Hooded Crane
385 Grus nigricollis Keria Leher Hitam
386 Grus vipio Keria Leher Putih
Haematopodidae (Tetiram) 387 Haematopus ostralegus Tetiram
Heliornithidae (Limpkin, Finfoot) 388 Heliopais personata Pedendang
Hemiprocnidae (Layang-Layang) 389 Hemiprocne longipennis Layang-Layang Jambul Kelabu
390 Hemiprocne comata Layang-Layang Jambul Kecil
Hydrobatidae (Storm-petrels) 391 Oceanites oceanicus Stom-petral Wilson
392 Oceonodroma monorhis Stom-petral Swinho
Hirundinidae (Martin) 393 Delichon dasypus Martin Asia
394 Hirundo concolor Martin Kelabu
395 Hirundo daurica Sualo Gua
396 Hirundo rustica Sualo Api
397 Hirundo striolata Striated Swallow
398 Hirundo tahitica Sualo Batu
399 Riparia riparia Martin Awan
400 Pseudochelidon sirintarae Martin Sungai
Icteridae (Burung Hitam) 401 Agelaius flavus Saffron-cowled Blackbird
Indicatoridae (Honeyguide) 402 Indicator archipelagicus Gembala Lebah
Irenidae (Leafbirds, Ioras, Fairybluebird) 403 Irena puella Dendang Gajah
Jacanidae (Teratai) 404 Hydrophasianus chirurgus Teratai Besar
405 Metopodius indicus Teratai Kecil
Laniidae (Tirjup) 406 Lanius cristatus Tirjup Tanah
407 Lanius schach Tirjup Ekor Panjang
408 Lanius tigrinus Tirjup Rimau
Laridae (Camar) 409 Anous minutes Camar Topi Putih
410 Anous stolidus Camar Anggok
411 Chlidonias hybridus Camar Batu Berumbai
412 Chlidonias leucopterus Camar Kepak Putih
413 Gelochelidon nilotica Camar Tiram
414 Hydroprogne caspia Camar Kaspian
415 Larus brunnicephalus Camar Kepala Coklat
416 Larus ridibundus Camar Kepala Hitam
417 Sterna albifrons Camar Kecil
418 Sterna anaethetus Camar Batu
419 Sterna bengalensis Camar Kecil Berjambul
420 Sterna bergii Camar Besar Berjambul
421 Sterna bernsteini Camar Cina Berjambul
422 Sterna dougallii Camar Berjalur
423 Sterna fuscata Camar Angin
424 Sterna hirundo Camar Siput
425 Sterna sumatrana Camar Topi Hitam
426 Larus relictus Relict Gull
Loriidae (Lories, Lorikeets) 427 Eos histrio Red-and-blue Lory
428 Vini ultramarina Ultramarine Lorikeet
Megalaimidae (Takur Asia) 429 Calorhamphus fuliginosus Takur Dahan
430 Megalaima australis Takur Akar
431 Megalaima chrysopogon Takur Jambang Emas
432 Megalaima eximia Takur Borneo
433 Megalaima franklinii Takur Leher Emas
434 Megalaima haemacephala Takur Tembaga
435 Megalaima henricii Takur Mahkota Kuning
436 Megalaima lineata Takur Kukup
437 Megalaima monticola Takur Gunung
438 Megalaima mystacophanus Takur Raya
439 Megalaima oorti Takur Bukit
440 Megalaima pulcherrima Takur Tengkok Emas
441 Megalaima rafflesii Takur Mahkota Merah, Takur Gunung
442 Psilopogon pyrolophus Takur Api
Megapodidae (Megapodes, Scrubfowl) 443 Megapodius cumingii Philippine Scrubfowl
444 Macrocephalon maleo Celebes Maleo
Meropidae (Bee-eaters) 445 Merops leschenaulti Berek-Berek Senja
446 Merops philippinus Berek-Berek Carik Dada
447 Merops viridis Berek-Berek Tadah Hujan
448 Nyctyornis amictus Berek-Berek Janggut Merah
Meliphagidae (Honeyeater) 449 Lichenostomus melanops cassidix Helmeted Honeyeater
Motacillidae (Wagtails, Pipit) 450 Anthus cervinus Pipit Injup
451 Anthus gustavi Pipit Rumput
452 Anthus hodgsoni Pipit Padang
453 Anthus richardi Pipit Tanah
454 Anthus rufulus Pipit Padi
455 Dendronanthus indicus Pipit Rimba
456 Motacilla alba Pipit Pelandok
457 Motacilla cinerea Pipit Batu
458 Motacilla flava Pipit Kuning
Muscicapidae (Sambar) 459 Culicicapa ceylonensis Sambar Pacat
460 Cyanoptila cyanomelana Sambar Biru Putih
461 Cyornis banyumas Sambar Bukit
462 Cyornis caerulatus Large-billed Blue Flycatcher
463 Cyornis concreta Sambar Ekor Putih
464 Cyornis ruberculoides Sambar Rengkong Biru
465 Cyornis rufigastra Sambar Biru Bakau
466 Cyornis superbus Bornean Blue Flycatcher
467 Cyornis tickelliae Sambar Kelicap Ranting
468 Cyornis turcosa Sambar Biru Malaysia
469 Cyornis unicolor Sambar Rimba
470 Eumyias indigo Indigo Flycatcher
471 Eumyias thalassina Verditer Flycatcher
472 Ficedula dumetoria Sambar Daun Oren
473 Ficedula hyperythra Sambar Kudung
474 Ficedula mugimaki Sambar Mugimaki
475 Ficedula narcissina Sambar Bunga
476 Ficedula parva Sambar Api Bukit
477 Ficedula solitaria Sambar Rengkong Putih
By norazmibinahmad Posted in Akta 716